Layer 3 Examples

The layer 3 policy establishes the base connectivity rules regarding which endpoints can talk to each other. Layer 3 policies can be specified using the following methods:

  • Labels Based: This is used to describe the relationship if both endpoints are managed by Cilium and are thus assigned labels. The big advantage of this method is that IP addresses are not encoded into the policies and the policy is completely decoupled from the addressing.
  • Services based: This is an intermediate form between Labels and CIDR and makes use of the services concept in the orchestration system. A good example of this is the Kubernetes concept of Service endpoints which are automatically maintained to contain all backend IP addresses of a service. This allows to avoid hardcoding IP addresses into the policy even if the destination endpoint is not controlled by Cilium.
  • Entities Based: Entities are used to describe remote peers which can be categorized without knowing their IP addresses. This includes connectivity to the local host serving the endpoints or all connectivity to outside of the cluster.
  • IP/CIDR based: This is used to describe the relationship to or from external services if the remote peer is not an endpoint. This requires to hardcode either IP addresses or subnets into the policies. This construct should be used as a last resort as it requires stable IP or subnet assignments.

Labels Based

Label-based L3 policy is used to establish policy between endpoints inside the cluster managed by Cilium.

Ingress

An endpoint is allowed to receive traffic from another endpoint if at least one ingress rule exists which selects the destination endpoint with the Endpoint Selector in the endpointSelector field. To restrict traffic upon ingress to the selected endpoint, the rule selects the source endpoint with the Endpoint Selector in the fromEndpoints field.

Simple Ingress Allow

The following example illustrates how to use a simple ingress rule to allow communication from endpoints with the label role=frontend to endpoints with the label role=backend.

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "l3-rule"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      role: backend
  ingress:
  - fromEndpoints:
    - matchLabels:
        role: frontend
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "l3-rule"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels": {"role":"backend"}},
    "ingress": [{
        "fromEndpoints": [
          {"matchLabels":{"role":"frontend"}}
        ]
    }]
}]

Ingress Allow All

An empty Endpoint Selector will select all endpoints, thus writing a rule that will allow all ingress traffic to an endpoint may be done as follows:

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "allow-all-to-victim"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      role: victim
  ingress:
  - fromEndpoints:
    - {}
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "allow-all-to-victim"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels": {"role":"victim"}},
    "ingress": [{
        "fromEndpoints": [
          {"matchLabels":{}}
        ]
    }]
}]

Note that while the above examples allow all ingress traffic to an endpoint, this does not mean that all endpoints are allowed to send traffic to this endpoint per their policies. In other words, policy must be configured on both sides (sender and receiver).

Egress

An endpoint is allowed to send traffic to another endpoint if at least one egress rule exists which selects the destination endpoint with the Endpoint Selector in the endpointSelector field. To restrict traffic upon egress to the selected endpoint, the rule selects the destination endpoint with the Endpoint Selector in the toEndpoints field.

Simple Egress Allow

The following example illustrates how to use a simple egress rule to allow communication to endpoints with the label role=backend from endpoints with the label role=frontend.

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "l3-egress-rule"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      role: frontend
  egress:
  - toEndpoints:
    - matchLabels:
        role: backend
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "l3-egress-rule"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels": {"role":"frontend"}},
    "egress": [{
        "toEndpoints": [
          {"matchLabels":{"role":"backend"}}
        ]
    }]
}]

Egress Allow All

An empty Endpoint Selector will select all endpoints, thus writing a rule that will allow all egress traffic from an endpoint may be done as follows:

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "allow-all-from-frontend"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      role: frontend
  egress:
  - toEndpoints:
    - {}
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "allow-all-from-frontend"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels": {"role":"frontend"}},
    "egress": [{
        "toEndpoints": [
          {"matchLabels":{}}
        ]
    }]
}]

Note that while the above examples allow all egress traffic from an endpoint, the receivers of the egress traffic may have ingress rules that deny the traffic. In other words, policy must be configured on both sides (sender and receiver).

Ingress/Egress Default Deny

An endpoint can be put into the default deny mode at ingress or egress if a rule selects the endpoint and contains the respective rule section ingress or egress.

Note

Any rule selecting the endpoint will have this effect, this example illustrates how to put an endpoint into default deny mode without whitelisting other peers at the same time.

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "deny-all-egress"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      role: restricted
  egress:
  - {}
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "deny-all-egress"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels": {"role":"restricted"}},
    "egress": [{}]
}]

Additional Label Requirements

It is often required to apply the principle of separation of concern when defining policies. For this reason, an additional construct exists which allows to establish base requirements for any connectivity to happen.

For this purpose, the fromRequires field can be used to establish label requirements which serve as a foundation for any fromEndpoints relationship. fromRequires is a list of additional constraints which must be met in order for the selected endpoints to be reachable. These additional constraints do not grant access privileges by themselves, so to allow traffic there must also be rules which match fromEndpoints. The same applies for egress policies, with toRequires and toEndpoints.

The purpose of this rule is to allow establishing base requirements such as, any endpoint in env=prod can only be accessed if the source endpoint also carries the label env=prod.

This example shows how to require every endpoint with the label env=prod to be only accessible if the source endpoint also has the label env=prod.

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
description: "For endpoints with env=prod, only allow if source also has label env=prod"
metadata:
  name: "requires-rule"
specs:
  - endpointSelector:
      matchLabels:
        env: prod
    ingress:
    - fromRequires:
      - matchLabels:
          env: prod
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "requires-rule"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels": {"env":"prod"}},
    "ingress": [{
        "fromRequires": [
          {"matchLabels":{"env":"prod"}}
        ]
    }]
}]

Services based

Services running in your cluster can be whitelisted in Egress rules. Currently Kubernetes Services without a Selector are supported when defined by their name and namespace or label selector. Future versions of Cilium will support specifying non-Kubernetes services and Kubernetes services which are backed by pods.

This example shows how to allow all endpoints with the label id=app2 to talk to all endpoints of kubernetes service myservice in kubernetes namespace default.

Note

These rules will only take effect on Kubernetes services without a selector.

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "service-rule"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      id: app2
  egress:
  - toServices:
    - k8sService:
        serviceName: myservice
        namespace: default
[{
      "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "service-rule"}],
      "endpointSelector": {
        "matchLabels": {
          "id": "app2"
        }
      },
      "egress": [
        {
          "toServices": [
            {
              "k8sService": {
                "serviceName": "myservice",
                "namespace": "default"
              }
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
}]

This example shows how to allow all endpoints with the label id=app2 to talk to all endpoints of all kubernetes headless services which have head:none set as the label.

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "service-labels-rule"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      id: app2
  egress:
  - toServices:
    - k8sServiceSelector:
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            head: none
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "service-labels-rule"}],
    "endpointSelector": {
        "matchLabels": {
            "id": "app2"
        }
    },
    "egress": [
        {
            "toServices": [
                {
                    "k8sServiceSelector": {
                        "selector": {
                            "matchLabels": {
                                "head": "none"
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}
]

Entities Based

fromEntities is used to describe the entities that can access the selected endpoints. toEntities is used to describe the entities that can be accessed by the selected endpoints.

The following entities are defined:

host
The local host serving the endpoint. On ingress, this also includes the host of other Cilium cluster nodes.
world
All traffic outside of the cluster.
all
All traffic both within the cluster and outside of the cluster.

New in version future: Allowing users to define custom identities is on the roadmap but has not been implemented yet.

Access to/from local host

Allow all endpoints with the label env=dev to access the host that is serving the particular endpoint.

Note

Kubernetes will automatically allow all communication from and to the local host of all local endpoints. You can run the agent with the option --allow-localhost=policy to disable this behavior which will give you control over this via policy.

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "dev-to-host"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      env: dev
  egress:
    - toEntities:
      - host
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "dev-to-host"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels": {"env":"dev"}},
    "egress": [{
        "toEntities": ["host"]
    }]
}]

Access to/from outside cluster

This example shows how to enable access from outside of the cluster to all endpoints that have the label role=public.

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "from-world-to-role-public"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      role: public
  ingress:
    - fromEntities:
      - world
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value":"from-world-to-role-public"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels": {"role":"public"}},
    "ingress": [{
        "fromEntities": ["world"]
    }]
}]

IP/CIDR based

CIDR policies are used to define policies to and from endpoints which are not managed by Cilium and thus do not have labels associated with them. These are typically external services, VMs or metal machines running in particular subnets. CIDR policy can also be used to limit access to external services, for example to limit external access to a particular IP range. CIDR policies can be applied at ingress or egress.

CIDR rules apply if Cilium cannot map the source or destination to an identity derived from endpoint labels, ie the Special Identities. For example, CIDR rules will apply to traffic where one side of the connection is:

  • A network endpoint outside the cluster
  • The host network namespace where the pod is running.
  • Within the cluster prefix but the IP’s networking is not provided by Cilium.

Ingress

fromCIDR
List of source prefixes/CIDRs that are allowed to talk to all endpoints selected by the endpointSelector.
fromCIDRSet
List of source prefixes/CIDRs that are allowed to talk to all endpoints selected by the endpointSelector, along with an optional list of prefixes/CIDRs per source prefix/CIDR that are subnets of the source prefix/CIDR from which communication is not allowed.

Egress

toCIDR
List of destination prefixes/CIDRs that endpoints selected by endpointSelector are allowed to talk to. Note that endpoints which are selected by a fromEndpoints are automatically allowed to talk to their respective destination endpoints.
toCIDRSet
List of destination prefixes/CIDRs that are allowed to talk to all endpoints selected by the endpointSelector, along with an optional list of prefixes/CIDRs per source prefix/CIDR that are subnets of the destination prefix/CIDR to which communication is not allowed.

Allow to external CIDR block

This example shows how to allow all endpoints with the label app=myService to talk to the external IP 20.1.1.1, as well as the CIDR prefix 10.0.0.0/8, but not CIDR prefix 10.96.0.0/12

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "cidr-rule"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      app: myService
  egress:
  - toCIDR:
    - 20.1.1.1/32
  - toCIDRSet:
    - cidr: 10.0.0.0/8
      except:
      - 10.96.0.0/12
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "cidr-rule"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels":{"app":"myService"}},
    "egress": [{
        "toCIDR": [
            "20.1.1.1/32"
        ]
    }, {
        "toCIDRSet": [{
            "cidr": "10.0.0.0/8",
            "except": [
                "10.96.0.0/12"
            ]}
        ]
    }]
}]

Layer 4 Examples

Limit ingress/egress ports

Layer 4 policy can be specified in addition to layer 3 policies or independently. It restricts the ability of an endpoint to emit and/or receive packets on a particular port using a particular protocol. If no layer 4 policy is specified for an endpoint, the endpoint is allowed to send and receive on all layer 4 ports and protocols including ICMP. If any layer 4 policy is specified, then ICMP will be blocked unless it’s related to a connection that is otherwise allowed by the policy. Layer 4 policies apply to ports after service port mapping has been applied.

Layer 4 policy can be specified at both ingress and egress using the toPorts field. The toPorts field takes a PortProtocol structure which is defined as follows:

// PortProtocol specifies an L4 port with an optional transport protocol
type PortProtocol struct {
        // Port is an L4 port number. For now the string will be strictly
        // parsed as a single uint16. In the future, this field may support
        // ranges in the form "1024-2048
        Port string `json:"port"`

        // Protocol is the L4 protocol. If omitted or empty, any protocol
        // matches. Accepted values: "TCP", "UDP", ""/"ANY"
        //
        // Matching on ICMP is not supported.
        //
        // +optional
        Protocol string `json:"protocol,omitempty"`
}

Example (L4)

The following rule limits all endpoints with the label app=myService to only be able to emit packets using TCP on port 80, to any layer 3 destination:

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "l4-rule"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      app: myService
  egress:
    - toPorts:
      - ports:
        - port: "80"
          protocol: TCP
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "l4-rule"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels":{"app":"myService"}},
    "egress": [{
        "toPorts": [
            {"ports":[ {"port": "80", "protocol": "TCP"}]}
        ]
    }]
}]

Labels-dependent Layer 4 rule

This example enables all endpoints with the label role=frontend to communicate with all endpoints with the label role=backend, but they must communicate using TCP on port 80. Endpoints with other labels will not be able to communicate with the endpoints with the label role=backend, and endpoints with the label role=frontend will not be able to communicate with role=backend on ports other than 80.

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "l4-rule"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      role: backend
  ingress:
  - fromEndpoints:
    - matchLabels:
        role: frontend
    toPorts:
    - ports:
      - port: "80"
        protocol: TCP
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "l4-rule"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels":{"role":"backend"}},
    "ingress": [{
        "fromEndpoints": [
          {"matchLabels":{"role":"frontend"}}
        ],
        "toPorts": [
            {"ports":[ {"port": "80", "protocol": "TCP"}]}
        ]
    }]
}]

Layer 7 Examples

Layer 7 policy rules are embedded into Layer 4 Examples rules and can be specified for ingress and egress. L7Rules structure is a base type containing an enumeration of protocol specific fields.

// L7Rules is a union of port level rule types. Mixing of different port
// level rule types is disallowed, so exactly one of the following must be set.
// If none are specified, then no additional port level rules are applied.
type L7Rules struct {
        // HTTP specific rules.
        //
        // +optional
        HTTP []PortRuleHTTP `json:"http,omitempty"`

        // Kafka-specific rules.
        //
        // +optional
        Kafka []PortRuleKafka `json:"kafka,omitempty"`
}

The structure is implemented as a union, i.e. only one member field can be used per port. If multiple toPorts rules with identical PortProtocol select an overlapping list of endpoints, then the layer 7 rules are combined together if they are of the same type. If the type differs, the policy is rejected.

Each member consists of a list of application protocol rules. A layer 7 request is permitted if at least one of the rules matches. If no rules are specified, then all traffic is permitted.

If a layer 4 rule is specified in the policy, and a similar layer 4 rule with layer 7 rules is also specified, then the layer 7 portions of the latter rule will have no effect.

Note

Unlike layer 3 and layer 4 policies, violation of layer 7 rules does not result in packet drops. Instead, if possible, an application protocol specific access denied message is crafted and returned, e.g. an HTTP 403 access denied is sent back for HTTP requests which violate the policy.

Note

There is currently a max limit of 40 ports with layer 7 policies per endpoint. This might change in the future when support for ranges is added.

HTTP

The following fields can be matched on:

Path
Path is an extended POSIX regex matched against the path of a request. Currently it can contain characters disallowed from the conventional “path” part of a URL as defined by RFC 3986. Paths must begin with a /. If omitted or empty, all paths are all allowed.
Method
Method is an extended POSIX regex matched against the method of a request, e.g. GET, POST, PUT, PATCH, DELETE, … If omitted or empty, all methods are allowed.
Host
Host is an extended POSIX regex matched against the host header of a request, e.g. foo.com. If omitted or empty, the value of the host header is ignored.
Headers
Headers is a list of HTTP headers which must be present in the request. If omitted or empty, requests are allowed regardless of headers present.

Allow GET /public

The following example allows GET requests to the URL /public to be allowed to endpoints with the labels env:prod, but requests to any other URL, or using another method, will be rejected. Requests on ports other than port 80 will be dropped.

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
description: "Allow HTTP GET /public from env=prod to app=service"
metadata:
  name: "rule1"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      app: service
  ingress:
  - fromEndpoints:
    - matchLabels:
        env: prod
    toPorts:
    - ports:
      - port: "80"
        protocol: TCP
      rules:
        http:
        - method: "GET"
          path: "/public"
[{
  "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "rule1"}],
  "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels": {"app": "service"}},
  "ingress": [{
    "fromEndpoints": [
      {"matchLabels": {"env": "prod"}}
    ]},{
    "toPorts": [{
      "ports": [
        {"port": "80", "protocol": "TCP"}
      ],
      "rules": {
        "HTTP": [
          {
            "method": "GET",
            "path": "/public"
          }
        ]
      }
    }]
  }]
}]

All GET /path1 and PUT /path2 when header set

The following example limits all endpoints which carry the labels app=myService to only be able to receive packets on port 80 using TCP. While communicating on this port, the only API endpoints allowed will be GET /path1 and PUT /path2 with the HTTP header X-My_header set to true:

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
metadata:
  name: "l7-rule"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      app: myService
  ingress:
  - toPorts:
    - ports:
      - port: '80'
        protocol: TCP
      rules:
        HTTP:
        - method: GET
          path: "/path1$"
        - method: PUT
          path: "/path2$"
          headers:
          - 'X-My-Header: true'
[{
    "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "l7-rule"}],
    "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels":{"app":"myService"}},
    "ingress": [{
        "toPorts": [{
            "ports": [
                {"port": "80", "protocol": "TCP"}
            ],
            "rules": {
                "HTTP": [
                    {
                        "method": "GET",
                        "path": "/path1$"
                    },{
                        "method": "PUT",
                        "path": "/path2$",
                        "headers": ["X-My-Header: true"]
                    }
                ]
            }
        }]
    }]
}]

Kafka (Tech Preview)

Note

Kafka support is currently in tech preview phase. Tech preview is functionality that has recently been added and had limited user exposure so far.

PortRuleKafka is a list of Kafka protocol constraints. All fields are optional, if all fields are empty or missing, the rule will match all Kafka messages. There are two ways to specify the Kafka rules. We can choose to specify a high-level “produce” or “consume” role to a topic or choose to specify more low-level Kafka protocol specific apiKeys. Writing rules based on Kafka roles is easier and covers most common use cases, however if more granularity is needed then users can alternatively write rules using specific apiKeys.

The following fields can be matched on:

Role

Role is a case-insensitive string which describes a group of API keys necessary to perform certain higher-level Kafka operations such as “produce” or “consume”. A Role automatically expands into all APIKeys required to perform the specified higher-level operation. The following roles are supported:

  • “produce”: Allow producing to the topics specified in the rule.
  • “consume”: Allow consuming from the topics specified in the rule.

This field is incompatible with the APIKey field, i.e APIKey and Role cannot both be specified in the same rule. If omitted or empty, and if APIKey is not specified, then all keys are allowed.

APIKey
APIKey is a case-insensitive string matched against the key of a request, for example “produce”, “fetch”, “createtopic”, “deletetopic”. For a more extensive list, see the Kafka protocol reference. This field is incompatible with the Role field.
APIVersion
APIVersion is the version matched against the api version of the Kafka message. If set, it must be a string representing a positive integer. If omitted or empty, all versions are allowed.
ClientID

ClientID is the client identifier as provided in the request.

From Kafka protocol documentation: This is a user supplied identifier for the client application. The user can use any identifier they like and it will be used when logging errors, monitoring aggregates, etc. For example, one might want to monitor not just the requests per second overall, but the number coming from each client application (each of which could reside on multiple servers). This id acts as a logical grouping across all requests from a particular client.

If omitted or empty, all client identifiers are allowed.

Topic

Topic is the topic name contained in the message. If a Kafka request contains multiple topics, then all topics in the message must be allowed by the policy or the message will be rejected.

This constraint is ignored if the matched request message type does not contain any topic. The maximum length of the Topic is 249 characters, which must be either a-z, A-Z, 0-9, -, . or _.

If omitted or empty, all topics are allowed.

Allow producing to topic empire-announce using Role

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
description: "enable empire-hq to produce to empire-announce and deathstar-plans"
metadata:
  name: "rule1"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      app: kafka
  ingress:
  - fromEndpoints:
    - matchLabels:
        app: empire-hq
    toPorts:
    - ports:
      - port: "9092"
        protocol: TCP
      rules:
        kafka:
        - role: "produce"
          topic: "deathstar-plans"
        - role: "produce"
          topic: "empire-announce"
[{
  "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "rule1"}],
  "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels": {"app": "kafka"}},
  "ingress": [{
    "fromEndpoints": [
      {"matchLabels": {"app": "empire-hq"}}
    ],
    "toPorts": [{
      "ports": [
        {"port": "9092", "protocol": "TCP"}
      ],
      "rules": {
        "kafka": [
            {"role": "produce","topic": "deathstar-plans"},
            {"role": "produce", "topic": "empire-announce"}
        ]
      }
    }]
  }]
}]

Allow producing to topic empire-announce using apiKeys

apiVersion: "cilium.io/v2"
kind: CiliumNetworkPolicy
description: "enable empire-hq to produce to empire-announce and deathstar-plans"
metadata:
  name: "rule1"
spec:
  endpointSelector:
    matchLabels:
      app: kafka
  ingress:
  - fromEndpoints:
    - matchLabels:
        app: empire-hq
    toPorts:
    - ports:
      - port: "9092"
        protocol: TCP
      rules:
        kafka:
        - apiKey: "apiversions"
        - apiKey: "metadata"
        - apiKey: "produce"
          topic: "deathstar-plans"
        - apiKey: "produce"
          topic: "empire-announce"
[{
  "labels": [{"key": "name", "value": "rule1"}],
  "endpointSelector": {"matchLabels": {"app": "kafka"}},
  "ingress": [{
    "fromEndpoints": [
      {"matchLabels": {"app": "empire-hq"}}
    ],
    "toPorts": [{
      "ports": [
        {"port": "9092", "protocol": "TCP"}
      ],
      "rules": {
        "kafka": [
            {"apiKey": "apiversions"},
            {"apiKey": "metadata"},
            {"apiKey": "produce", "topic": "deathstar-plans"},
            {"apiKey": "produce", "topic": "empire-announce"}
        ]
      }
    }]
  }]
}]